Ezgi Kaya

Ph.D. Student in Economics
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona



Gender Gaps in Spain: Policies and Outcomes over the Last Three Decades (with Nezih Guner and Virginia Sánchez-Marcos), SERIEs (the Journal of Spanish Economic Association), 5 (1),  61-103, 2014 [Download]
We document recent trends in gender equality in employment and wages in Spain. Despite an impressive decline in the gender gap in employment, females are still less likely to work than males: about 76% of working age males and 63% of working age females were employed in 2010. If females work they are more likely to be employed part time and with temporary contracts. The large increase in female employment, from 28% in 1977 to 63% in 2010, was accompanied by a significant decline in fertility. The gender gap in wages, after controlling for worker and job characteristics as well as for selection, is high. It was about 20% in 2010, quite close to its value in 1994. Furthermore, the gender gap in wages is driven mainly by differences in returns to individual characteristics. While women are more qualified than men in observable labor market characteristics, they end up earning less. There have been several important policy changes that try to help families reconcile family responsibilities with market work. The existing literature suggests that households do react to incentives generated by different policies and policy changes are at least partly responsible for changes in female labor supply. In recent decades, the large inflow of immigrants, who provided relatively cheap household services, allowed more educated women to enter the labor market. Policy challenges, however, remain.

Gini Decomposition by Gender: Turkish Case* (with Umit Senesen), Brussels Economic Review, 53(1), 59-83, 2010 [Download]
*Turkish Economic Association (TEK) Research Prize for Young Turkish Economists, Encouragement Prize
The aim of this paper is to reveal the gender inequalities in income distribution for Turkey by using decomposition of Gini coefficient, a common income inequality measure. A new decomposition method, Dagum's approach for decomposition of the Gini coefficient is used in the study. In the analysis, the decomposition of the Gini coefficient by gender is applied to Turkish individuals twice. First Gini coefficient for total disposable income is decomposed to examine the gender disparities in individual income distribution. Here disposable income inequality is examined on the basis of female-male, illiterate-primary-secondary-tertiary education levels, urban-rural areas, agricultural-non-agricultural sectors. Second, Gini coefficient for wage-income is partitioned to its components to define wage gap between males and females. The wage-income inequality is also examined on the basis of gender, education levels, urban-rural areas, as well as public, private and state economic enterprises (SEE). The data used here are the incomes of Turkish individuals and come from 2005 Household Budget Survey conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT). The decomposition of Gini coefficient presented that the contribution of inequalities between genders is more influential in income distribution than in wage-income distribution and the portion of inequality between genders in other income factors to the total income inequality is more than it is in wage-income. Lastly, another class of decomposable income inequality measures, generalized entropy indexes are decomposed by gender and the differences between Gini decomposition and generalized entropy indexes are examined.

Working Papers

Heterogeneous Couples, Household Interactions and Labor Supply Elasticities of Married Women, Manuscript, 2013 [Download]
This paper estimates labor supply elasticities of married men and women allowing for heterogeneity among couples (in educational attainments of husbands and wives) and explicitly modeling how household members interact and make labor supply decisions. We find that the labor supply decisions of husbands and wives are interdependent unless both spouses are highly educated (college or above). Couples with high education, the labor supply decisions of husband and wife are jointly determined only if they have pre-school age children. We also find that labor supply elasticities differ greatly between households. The participation own-wage elasticity is largest (0.77) for women with low education married to men with low education, and smallest (0.03) for women with high education married to men with low education. The participation own-wage elasticities for women with low education married to highly educated men and for women with high education married to highly educated men are similar and fall between these two extremes (about 0.30 for each). For all types of couples, participation non-labor family income elasticity is small. We also find that participation cross-wage elasticities for married women are relatively small (less than -0.05) if they are married to men with low education and larger (-0.37) if they are married to highly educated men. Allowing for heterogeneity across couples yields an overall participation wage elasticity of 0.56, a cross wage elasticity of -0.13 and an income elasticity of -0.006 for married women. The analysis in this paper provides a natural framework to study how changes in educational attainments and household structure affect aggregate labor supply elasticities.

Gender Wage Gap Trends in Europe: The Role of Occupational Allocation and Skill Prices, Manuscript, 2013 [Download]
This paper explores the recent gender wage gap trends in a sample of European countries with a new approach that uses the direct measures of skill requirements of jobs held by men and women. During the 1990s and 2000s, the gender wage gap declined in the majority of European countries. Similar to the U.S. experience, a part of this decline is explained by changes in male-female differences in brain and brawn skill intensities that occur due to the shifts in occupational allocations. However, in contrast to the U.S. experience, changes in returns to brain and brawn skills had a widening effect on the gender wage gap. Furthermore, a substantial part of the changes in the gender wage gaps cannot be explained by changes in the gender gaps in labor market characteristics, brain and brawn skills or changes in the wage structure. We find that, the explained part of the gender gap is strongly correlated with labor market institutions, such as employment protection of workers and trade union density. This suggests a strong link between changes in labor market institutions and changes in gender wage gap trends.

Young Adults Living with their Parents and the Influence of Peers (with Effrosyni Adamopoulou), UC3M Working Paper, No. 13-10, 2013 [Download]
This paper focuses on young adults living with their parents in the U.S. and studies the role of peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) we analyze the influence of high school friends on the co-residence of young adults with their parents. We address the challenges in the identification of peer effects in a static framework and employ an instrumental variable technique and control for state fixed effects in order to mitigate them. We then move to a dynamic framework and exploit differences in the timing of leaving the parental home among peers. Our preliminary results indicate that there are statistically significant peer effects on the nest-leaving behavior of young adults.

Quantile Regression and The Gender Wage Gap: Is There a Glass Ceiling in the Turkish Labor Market?, Manuscript, 2010 [Download]
The aim of this paper is to examine the existence of a significant glass ceiling effect in the Turkish labor market. By glass ceiling we mean the existence of a gender wage gap significantly more pronounced at the upper tail of the wage distribution than at the middle or lower tail. In the first step of the analysis, quantile regressions are estimated using data from the Structure of Earnings Survey 2006 conducted by the Turkish Statistical Institute. Several alternative model specifications are explored. In the second step, counterfactual wage distributions are generated, to quantify the role of worker attributes versus returns to these attributes shaping the gender wage gap. The quantile regression estimates and the decomposition analyses consistently show that the gender wage gap is more pronounced at the upper tail of the wage distribution, implying the existence of a glass ceiling effect for women in the Turkish labor market.

Work in Progress

Labor Markets and Fertility
(with Nezih Guner and Virginia Sánchez-Marcos)